The Hannaian Index - Business & Investment Research Portal - Tracking Innovation & Money Flow In The Capital Markets

Log in


Important Notice

All Registrants utilizing this site to market or promote any product, service, investment product, service or securities are advised to comply with all U.S. Federal laws and Securities and Exchnage regulations, and to seek appropriate legal and other professional advice prior to posting or listing any information on this site.

All Registrants must agree that they have reviewed the above information prior to registration and posting on Hannadex.

All Hannadex Registrants posting information on this site should also carefully review the following: 

Registration Under the Securities Act of 1933

Often referred to as the "truth in securities" law, the Securities Act of 1933 has two basic objectives:  

  • To require that investors receive financial and other significant information concerning securities being offered for public sale; and       
  • To prohibit deceit, misrepresentations, and other fraud in the sale of securities.

The SEC accomplishes these goals primarily by requiring that companies disclose important financial information through the registration of securities. This information enables investors, not the government, to make informed judgments about whether to purchase a company's securities.   Here’s an overview of how the registration process works. In general, all securities offered in the U.S. must be registered with the SEC or must qualify for an exemption from the registration requirements. The registration forms a company files with the SEC provide essential facts, including:  

  • A description of the company's properties and business;       
  • A description of the security to be offered for sale;           
  • Information about the management of the company; and       
  • Financial statements certified by independent accountants.

Registration statements and prospectuses become public shortly after the company files them with the SEC. All companies, domestic and foreign, are required to file registration statements and other forms electronically. Investors can then access registration and other company filings using EDGAR.   

Not all offerings of securities must be registered with the SEC. The most common exemptions from the registration requirements include:  

  • Private offerings to a limited number of persons or institutions;       
  • Offerings of limited size;           
  • Intrastate offerings; and       
  • Securities of municipal, state, and federal governments.

By exempting many small offerings from the registration process, the SEC seeks to foster capital formation by lowering the cost of offering securities to the public.

The SEC’s Division of Corporation Finance may examine a company’s registration statement to determine whether it complies with our disclosure requirements. But the SEC does not evaluate the merits of offerings, nor do we determine if the securities offered are "good" investments.     

While our rules require that companies provide accurate and truthful information, we cannot guarantee the accuracy of the information in a company’s filings. In fact, every year we bring enforcement actions against companies who’ve "cooked their books" or failed to provide important information to investors. Investors who purchase securities and suffer losses should know that they have important recovery rights if they can prove that there was incomplete or inaccurate disclosure of important information.

To learn more about the SEC’s registration requirements—especially for small business owners—please read our brochure, entitled Q&A: Small Business and the SEC.


We have provided this information as a service to investors.  It is neither a legal interpretation nor a statement of SEC policy.  If you have questions concerning the meaning or application of a particular law or rule, please consult with an attorney who specializes in securities law.


Regulation D (SEC)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

In the United States under the Securities Act of 1933, any offer to sell securities must either be registered with the United States Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) or meet certain qualifications to exempt them from such registration. Regulation D (or Reg D) contains the rules providing exemptions from the registration requirements, allowing some companies to offer and sell their securities without having to register the securities with the SEC.[1] A Regulation D offering is intended to make access to the capital markets possible for small companies that could not otherwise bear the costs of a normal SEC registration. Reg D may also refer to an investment strategy, mostly associated with hedge funds, based upon the same regulation. The regulation is found under Title 17 of the Code of Federal Regulations, part 230, Sections 501 through 508. The legal citation is 17 C.F.R. §230.501 et seq.



Reg D is composed of various rules dictating the qualifications needed to meet the SEC exemptions. Rule 501 of Reg D contains definitions that apply to the rest of Reg D. Rule 502 contains the general conditions that must be met to take advantage of the exemptions under Regulation D. Generally speaking, these conditions are (1) that all sales within a certain time period that are part of the same Reg D offering must be "integrated", meaning they must be treated as one offering, (2) information and disclosures must be provided, (3) there must be no "general solicitation", and (4) that the securities being sold contain restrictions on their resale. Rule 503 requires issuers to file a Form D with the SEC when they make an offering under Regulation D. In Rules 504 and 505, Regulation D implements §3(b) of the Securities Act of 1933 (also referred to as the '33 Act), which allows the SEC to exempt issuances of under $5,000,000 from registration. It also provides (in Rule 506) a "safe harbor" under §4(2) of the '33 Act (which says that non-public offerings are exempt from the registration requirement). In other words, if an issuer complies with the requirements of Rule 506, they can rest assured that their offering is "non-public," and thus that it is exempt from registration. Rule 507 penalizes issuers who do not file the Form D, as required by Rule 503. Rule 508 provides the guidelines under which the SEC enforces Regulation D against issuers. On April 5, 2012 President Obama signed into law The Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act, known as The Jobs Act, which for the first time in over 80 years relaxes investment securities offering rules first enacted during the Great Depression.[2]


Regulation D establishes three exemptions from Securities Act registration.

Rule 504

Rule 504 provides an exemption for the offer and sale of up to $1,000,000 of securities in a 12-month period. The company may use this exemption so long as it is not a blank check company and is not subject to Exchange Act of 1934 reporting requirements. General offering and solicitations are permitted under Rule 504 as long as they are restricted to accredited investors. The issuer need not restrict purchaser's right to resell securities.

Rule 504 allows companies to sell securities that are not restricted if one of the following conditions is met:

  • The offering is registered exclusively in one or more states that require a publicly filed registration statement and delivery of a substantive disclosure document to investors;
  • The registration and sale takes place in a state that requires registration and disclosure delivery, and the buyer is in a state without those requirements, so long as the disclosure documents mandated by the state in which you registered to all purchasers are delivered; or
  • The securities are sold exclusively according to state law exemptions that permit general solicitation and advertising and you are selling only to accredited investors. However, accredited investors are only needed when sold exclusively with state law exemptions on solicitation.

Rule 505

Rule 505 provides an exemption for offers and sales of securities totaling up to $5 million in any 12-month period. Under this exemption, securities may be sold to an unlimited number of "accredited investors" and up to 35 "unaccredited investors" who do not need to satisfy the sophistication or wealth standards associated with other exemptions. Purchasers must buy for investment only, and not for resale. The issued securities are restricted, in that the investors may not sell for at least two years without registering the transaction. General solicitation or advertising to sell the securities is not allowed. Under Regulation D, Rule 505, the SEC must be notified within 15 days after the first sale of the offering.

Financial statement requirements applicable to this type of offering:

  • Financial statements need to be certified by an independent public accountant;
  • If a company other than a limited partnership cannot obtain audited financial statements without unreasonable effort or expense, only the company's balance sheet, to be dated within 120 days of the start of the offering, must be audited; and
  • Limited partnerships unable to obtain required financial statements without unreasonable effort or expense may furnish audited financial statements prepared under the federal income tax laws.

Rule 506

A company that satisfies the following standards may qualify for an exemption under this rule:

  • Can raise an unlimited amount of capital;
  • Does not use general solicitation or advertising to market the securities;
  • Sale of securities can be an unlimited number of accredited investors[3] and up to 35 other purchasers. Unlike Rule 505, all non-accredited investors, either alone or with a purchaser representative, must be sophisticated - that is, they must have sufficient knowledge and experience in financial and business matters to make them capable of evaluating the merits and risks of the prospective investment;
  • Seller must be available to answer questions by prospective purchasers;
  • Financial statement requirements as for Rule 505; and
  • Purchasers receive restricted securities, which may not be freely traded in the secondary market after the offering.

In August 2012, the SEC issued new proposed regulations as required by 2012 Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act. These new regulations add Rule 506(c) to allow general advertising solicitation, effectively relaxing the prohibition on advertising private placement offerings, but only for qualifying 506 private offerings made exclusively to accredited investors and also places heightened verification requirements on determining whether or not an investor is "accredited."[4]

Accredited Investor Exemption

Section 4(5) of the '33 Act exempts from registration offers and sales of securities to accredited investors when the total offering price is less than $5 million and no public solicitation or advertising is made. However, Regulation D does not address the offering of securities under this section of the '33 Act.

Investment Strategy

As a hedge fund strategy, Reg. D refers to investment in micro- and small-capitalization public companies that are raising money in private capital markets. Often these securities are hedged by way of a look-back provision or a convertibility option with a floating exercise price.


Introduction to Private Placements 

By Mark  J. Astarita, Esq.  

Reprinted from: http://www.seclaw.com/docs/pplace.htm 


This document is not legal advice, and is intended solely for information and educational purposes. If you are contemplating a private placement, or any legal transaction, you should consult an attorney who can provide you with the advice that you need, for your specific circumstances. Securities law, and corporate finance, is not the area for novices to play. Incorrect documentation can have serious ramifications for all involved parties.

 The term "private placement" as used in this text refers to the offer and sale of any security by a brokerage firm not involving a public offering. Private offerings are not the subject of a registration statement filed with the SEC under the 1933 Act. Private placements are done in reliance upon Sections 3(b) or 4(2) of the 1933 Act as construed or under Regulation D as promulgated by the SEC, or both. Regulation D, promulgated in 1982, sets forth certain guidelines for compliance with the Private Offering Exemption. Any registered representative who are involved in the private placement process are expected to have a working familiarity with Regulation D.

Related Publication: Hedge Fund Disclosure Documents Line by Line: A User's Guide to Private Placement Memoranda for Funds Formed as Limited Liability Companies                        

 To qualify as a private placement, an offering by an issuer must meet either the requirement of Sections 3(b) or 4(2) of the 1933 Act as developed through SEC interpretation and court decisions or must follow the conditions set out under Regulation D of the 1933 Act. Persons claiming the exemption from the 1933 Act carry the burden of proving that its activities came within that exemption.


Regulation D


Regulation D is a series of six rules, Rules 501-506, establishing three transactional exemptions from the registration requirements of the 1933 Act.

 Rules 501-503 set forth definitions, terms and conditions that apply generally throughout the Regulation. Specific exemptions are set out in Rules 504-506.

 Rule 504 applies to transactions in which no more than $1,000,000 of securities are sold in any consecutive twelve-month period. Rule 504 imposes no ceiling on the number of investors, permits the payment of commissions, and imposes no restrictions on the manner of offering or resale of securities. Further, Rule 504 does not prescribe specific disclosure requirements. Generally, the intent of Rule 504 is to shift the obligation of regulating very small offerings to state "Blue Sky" administrators, though the offerings continue to be subject to federal anti-fraud provisions and civil liability provisions of the Exchange Act.

 Rule 505 applies to transactions in which not more than $5,000,000 of securities is sold in any consecutive twelve-month period. Sales to thirty-five "non-accredited" investors and to an unlimited number of accredited investors are permitted. An issuer under Rule 505 may not use any general solicitation or general advertising to sell its securities.

 Rule 506 has no dollar limitation of the offering. Rule 506 is available to all issuers for offerings sold to not more than thirty-five non-accredited purchasers and an unlimited number of accredited investors. Rule 506, however, unlike 504 and 505, requires an issuer to make a subjective determination that at the time of acquisition of the investment each non-accredited purchaser meets a certain sophistication standard, either individually or in conjunction with a "Purchaser Representative." Like Rule 505, Rule 506 prohibits any general solicitation or general advertising.

 "Accredited Investor" is defined in Rule 501(a). The principal categories of accredited investors are as follows:

1) Directors, executive officers, and general partners of the issuer, including general partners of general partners in two-tier syndicating. (The term "executive officers" is more fully defined in the Regulation.)

(2) Purchasers whose net worth either individually or jointly with their spouse equals or exceeds $1 million. It is important to note that while there is no definition of "net worth" in Regulation D, there similarly is no requirement of liquidity in the calculation of net worth for this accreditation standard. Thus, a purchaser's home, furnishings, etc. are includable in the determination of net worth.

(3) Natural person purchasers who have "income" in excess of $200,000 in each of the two most recent years and who reasonably expect an income in excess of $200,000 in current year (or $300,000, jointly with their spouse).

(4) A business entity will be treated as a single accredited investor unless it was organized for the specific purpose of acquiring the securities offered, in which case each beneficial owner of the security is counted separately. 

Additional Compliance Considerations Under Regulation D

The SEC has pointed out the following regarding Regulation D:

  1. Regulation D does not exempt offerings from the anti-fraud and civil liability provisions of the various federal securities laws.
  2. Further, Regulation D in no way relieves issuers of their obligation to furnish to investors whatever material information may be needed to make any required disclosures not misleading.
  3. Similarly, notwithstanding exemption from registration at the federal level, Regulation D in no way obviates an issuer's obligation to comply with applicable state law.
  4. Regulation D is interpreted as providing "transactional" exemptions to issuers only. An investor whose purchase was exempt from registration cannot resell his or her interest without establishing an independent basis of exemption.
  5. The three exemptions are not intended to be mutually exclusive, that a reliance on one exemption is not deemed to be an election to the exclusion of any other applicable exemption.
  6. Finally, the exemptions of Regulation D may not be claimed with respect to any plan or scheme to evade the registration provisions of the act.

Existing state securities regulations at times impose substantially more onerous limitations on issuers than Regulation D. Issuer's counsel must be consulted regarding the requirements of the securities law of each state in which an offering is going to be sold. 

Form D

Notices, on Form D, are due within fifteen days after the first sale of securities in an offering under Regulation D. It will be prepared by Issuer's counsel. 

Private Placement of Restricted Securities Outside Regulation D

The specific requirements to be satisfied in establishing an exemption under Section 4(2) for a private placement are not stated in that section of the Securities Act of 1933. By studying SEC interpretations and court decisions dealing with Section 4(2), the basic requirements which a private placement must meet can be determined. They are summarized below:

  1. All the offerees and purchasers must have access to the same kind of information concerning the issuer which would appear in an SEC registration statement, and these persons must be able to comprehend and evaluate such information. It must be kept in mind that any offer to an offeree who would not qualify, as well as a sale to a purchaser who would not qualify, may destroy the      private placement exemption and result in a violation of Section 5 of the 1933 Act.
  2. The issuer and any parties acting for the issuer, including the broker-dealer, must take all reasonable steps to insure that the information given to the offerees and purchasers is complete and accurate. This is "due diligence." All information passed on in the course of the private placement, either orally or by memorandum (or offering circular), is subject to the anti-fraud provisions of the federal securities laws. The fact that the offering memorandum is not reviewed by the SEC does not lower the standards for accuracy which would be applicable to any registered offering.
  3. All of the offerees must have access to meaningful current information concerning the issuer. The fact than an offeree has considerable financial resources or is a lawyer, accountant or businessperson, and thus may be considered sophisticated, does not eliminate the need for appropriate information to be made available.
  4. While there is no specific limitation on the number of offerees, the greater the number of offerees, the greater the likelihood that the offering will not qualify for the exemption. In this connection, a private placement cannot be the subject of advertising, general promotional seminars or public meetings in connection with the offering. This limitation does not preclude meeting with offerees to discuss the terms of the offer or to present information concerning the issuer or the offer. After the private placement has been completed, a general announcement (such as a tombstone ad) concerning it may be made if this is desired.
  5. Purchasers in a private placement must acquire the securities for investment and not for the purpose of further distribution. If the purchaser acts in such a manner so as to participate in distribution of the securities to the public, either directly or indirectly as a link between the issuer and the public, he or she will be deemed to be an underwriter and the selling broker-dealer and other participants in the distribution, including the issuer, will be in violation of Section 5 of the 1933 Act. Each of the purchasers must intend to acquire for investment at the time the securities are purchased. Whether or not investment intent was present will be determined from all the circumstances surrounding the acquisition. Such circumstances would include the financial capability of the purchaser to hold the securities for the long term and whether the purchaser signed a letter of investment intent. The amount of time the securities have been held (the holding period) is one of the factors in a hindsight determination that an investment intent existed at the time of purchase. A two-year holding period is deemed to be the bare minimum.

What is readily apparent from the foregoing is that current and accurate information about the offerees in a private placement transaction is absolutely essential for the making of judgments as to suitability, ability to evaluate an offering, and investment intent. 

Private Placement Offering Memorandum

To meet the requirement of Regulation D or the requirements of Section 4(2) of the 1933 Act (the private placement exemption), the issuer is almost always required to make extensive disclosures regarding the nature, character and risk factors relating to an offering. The disclosure document often is labeled "Offering Memorandum" or given a similar title, which, in the normal course, is based upon information provided to counsel to the issuer. While a properly executed private placement is exempt from the registration provisions (i.e. Section 5 of the 1933 Act) of the federal securities laws, the transaction (and the disclosures made or a lack thereof) is subject to the anti-fraud provisions. If the offering memorandum is a particular private placement turns out to be materially misleading in terms of disclosures which have been made (or which should have been made), the broker-dealer and its principals may be deemed to have violated or aided or abetted violations of the anti-fraud provisions of the federal securities laws.

Unfortunately, because of the nature of a private offering, those looking to review an offering memorandum for educational purposes will have a very difficult time finding one. We did manage to locate a sample, and have it on line - sample private placement memorandum. Another source that we have found is Hedge Fund Disclosure Documents Line by Line: A User's Guide to Private Placement Memoranda for Funds Formed as Limited Liability Companies While a hedge fund PPM is slightly different than a "traditional" PPM, the book will give the reader a great deal of insight into the contents of a private placement memorandum.

Supplementary or Corrective Material

During the course of private placement activities on a particular issue, or prior to the closing, it may become necessary to update or correct information supplied in the private placement memorandum as originally prepared. The corrected information must be brought to the attention of the offerees by means of a cover or transmittal letter which describes the changes or additions. Depending upon the information transmitted, reconfirmation of an investors desire to invest may be required. The files maintained with respect to a particular offering must contain a record of what has been done. Prior to closing an offering, meaning the acceptance of investors in a transaction, a brokerage firm Principal must verify that all such amendments have been sent to all subscribing offerees and that the files are accurate and complete.

Offeree Access To Information

In most private placement offering memoranda, it is stated that the memorandum has been prepared by counsel to the issuer (i.e., the corporation) from documents which have been provided by representatives of the issuer. Offerees are invited to meet with representatives of the issuer to make an independent investigation and verification of the matters disclosed in the offering memorandum. Courts, reviewing private placements when challenged, weigh investor access to underlying information about the transaction very heavily in the determination of whether there has been compliance with the private placement exemption. The brokerage firm's designated Principal should obtain a commitment from the Issuer that potential purchasers and their representatives shall be given access to underlying information about the transaction if they desire to pursue such information. The fact that information is available to offerees should be specifically disclosed to the offerees at a conspicuous point in the offering documents. 


Offering Commencement and Termination

The commencement date of private offerings is fixed generally at the date of the availability of the approved offering documents, for distribution to sales personnel.

The termination date for a private offering is dependent on the type of offering being made. An "all or nothing" offering contains, by its terms, a fixed or defined date for the termination of the offering. A "best efforts" offering may have an indeterminate termination period meaning that the offering continues until the full number of Securities is placed and the subscribers are formally accepted by both the issuer (or a duly authorized representative) and by a Principal of the brokerage firm.

 The sales objectives in a best efforts offering, of course, is that all securities will be placed with suitable investors. However, short of all securities being placed, it is required that a minimum amount of money need be raised which shall be sufficient, after the funding of all of the organizational and offering expenses, and giving consideration to the fixed contractual obligations of the issuer, without changing the nature of the investment called for by the general terms of the offering. The issuer may be given the option of funding required issuer obligations by the making of loans or deferral of fees. In such a case where the issuer funds financial requirements prior to the placement of all of the securities, it is the obligation of the brokerage firm to assure itself that appropriate disclosure to all offerees (and subscribers) be made and to assure itself that the basic nature and character of the transaction called for by the terms of the offering are maintained. If it appears that they cannot be maintained, then the transaction must be rescinded and monies paid by subscribers must be refunded. 

Possible Need for a Purchaser Representative

A judgment must be made as to the business sophistication of a purchaser. If it is determined that a particular purchaser is not sufficiently sophisticated in business matters to effectively evaluate the investment opportunity, then he or she must be assisted by a "purchaser representative," i.e., a person possessing the requisite sophistication (chosen by the purchaser) who is able to and does assist in evaluating the investment opportunity and who is not an affiliate of the issuer, not the brokerage firm. Also, State Blue Sky laws impose additional requirements for their investors. Only customers known to registered representative personally should be sent only brokerage firm approved offering materials. If there is doubt about the individual's need for a purchaser representative, the subscriber should be required to obtain one. 

No General Solicitation

  1. Cold Calling is not permitted.
  2. Advertisements, articles, notices or any other communication cannot be published in any newspaper, magazine, newsletter or similar media or broadcast on TV, radio or cable.
  3. No seminars or meetings may be held with regard to any current offering unless each invitee is known and qualified in advance.
  4. No mention of any specific offering or past performance may be made at generic seminars (i.e. seminars to discuss the general concept of such investments).

No Fee Sharing

Fees may not be split with non-registered persons such as lawyers, accountants or investment advisers. 

Investment Intent

Purchasers of private placement securities must purchase for investment purposes and not for the purpose of resale. The typical subscription documents used in private placements contains what is called "investment letter language." This representation should be personally verified. Consideration should be given as to whether the investment representation makes sense in view of the surrounding circumstances of the proposed purchaser. 

Oral Representations

Offerees, having received private placement offering documents, frequently request oral explanations or supplements to the information presented. Great care should be taken in making oral disclosures regarding a private placement. Deviation from the printed material is prohibited. Written notes of conversations with offerees (and their representatives) should be made, dated and placed in the client's file. 

Acceptance Of Offerees As Purchasers

In all private placement offerings, the subscribers must be formally accepted by the issuer. The acceptance of subscribers is based upon a subscriber questionnaire and, possibly, the customers account information (a document signed by the client). A review of the contents of this form by a representative of the firm who is qualified to make such determinations is imperative.

 Following the acceptance of the subscribers in an offering by both the issuer and the principal, the offering shall be terminated by notification to all involved sales persons or entities. 

Mechanics of Offering Process

  1. The offering documents should be numbered. Unnumbered copies should be marked "For Information Only", "File Copy" and other appropriate notation.
  2. A distribution control sheet will be created, and monitored. As offering documents are assigned to particular registered representatives, the number of the offering documents, together with the registered representative's name, should be placed on the control sheet.
  3. A sales control sheet will be maintained reflecting current sales.
  4. Incoming checks, subscription agreements, and executed suitability documents will be logged on the Sales Blotter on a daily basis.
  5. Checks should be reviewed for acceptability by the firm, recorded on the brokerage firm's receipts blotter, and forwarded to the individual bank escrow agent, and where appropriate to the Issuer, together with the purchaser's name, address, social security number, and number of shares/units.
  6. Incoming subscription agreements should be approved by the firm, recorded on the sales blotter and forwarded to the Issuer for acceptance. A copy must be maintained for the brokerage firm files.
  7. Confirmations should be sent immediately to the subscriber upon acceptance, to the registered representatives, and a file copy should be retained (e.g. a copy of the Subscription Documents.)
  8. Form D will be filed, on a timely basis, by counsel to the Issuer, with the SEC and with those states that require it.
  9. Care should be taken that any other forms necessary to comply with the state Blue Sky authorities will be timely filed. Counsel to the issuer or brokerage firm counsel should generally be consulted as to the required forms in the states where the securities have been sold. Generally, this is accomplished by counsel to the issuer. (Some states require no forms.)
  10. A complete file containing the above-described documents for each private placement should be maintained as part of the brokerage firm's records.

Escrow Account - Private Placements Only

The federal securities law (the Exchange Act) is very specific with respect to the required treatment of an escrow account maintained in an "all or none" or "part or none" offering.

 The rules applicable to "all or none" or "part or none" offerings relating to the maintenance of an escrow account for a given offering are Rules 10b-9 and 15c2-4 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934. Rule 10b-9 requires, in general, that in an "all or none" or "part or none" offering (as opposed to a "best efforts" offering) monies paid for the purchase of securities must be returned to the investors if the specified number/dollar amount of securities is not sold within a specified time. In other words, the "all or none" or "part or none" offering requires specification of the number of securities and the time of the selling period. Both terms must be adhered to.

 Rule 15c2-4 requires, in general, that the monies received from investors be deposited into a separate segregated bank account (Independent Bank as Escrow Agent) and held for the investors' benefit until the "all or none" or "part or none" terms have been complied with. If the terms of the offering are met, the money is to be transmitted to the issuer. If not, the monies are to be returned to subscribers.

 The specific procedures to be followed in the handling of escrow accounts for "all or none" or "part or none" transactions are as follows:

  1. When an "all or none" or "part or none" offering is commenced, an escrow agreement shall be created. This document should be executed by the brokerage firm and the bank. The brokerage firm is required to keep a copy of all escrow agreements on file to demonstrate compliance with Rule 15c2-4.
  2. An escrow account should be opened by the bank. The escrow account is governed by the escrow agreement. The account typically requires signatures of representatives of both the brokerage firm and the Issuer before any checks can be issued from the account.
  3. Incoming monies should be deposited immediately into the escrow account, along with the purchaser's name, address, social security number and number of shares/units.
  4. Upon the completion of the "all or none" or "part or none" terms of the agreement or upon the expiration of the specified time period, the escrow agent verifies that the terms of the escrow agreement have been or have not been met by the designated date and that the funds should be released from escrow.
  5. The issuer then transmits written confirmation stating that a determination has been made that the conditions of the escrow have or have not been complied with and request a release of the funds.
  6. Upon receipt of the written confirmation described above, the funds are transmitted to the proper entity or persons.
  7. The documentation created by these procedures is then retained in a segregated file for audit or regulatory review.
  8. In a "best efforts" offering, the brokerage firm is contractually bound to use its "best efforts" to place the securities with suitable investors. The brokerage firm will follow the procedures as outlined above regarding placement of subscriber's funds in an independent bank escrow account.

Hopefully, this introduction has provided you with an overview of the legal requirements of a private placement, and the importance of every step of the process. For information on the practical side of the process, try other sites listed in our Financial Resources page.


Related Publication: Hedge Fund Disclosure Documents Line by Line: A User's Guide to Private Placement Memoranda for Funds Formed as Limited Liability Companies  


Definition of 'Public Offering'

The sale of equity shares or other financial instruments by an organization to the public in order to raise funds for business expansion and investment. Public offerings of corporate securities in the U.S. must be registered with and approved by the SEC and are normally conducted by an investment underwriter.

Investopedia explains 'Public Offering'

Generally, any sale of securities to more than 35 people is deemed to be a public offering, and thus requires the filing of registration statements with the appropriate regulatory authorities. The offering price is predetermined and established by the issuing company and the investment bankers handling the transaction. The term public offering is equally applicable to a company's initial public offering, as well as subsequent offerings.

Definition of 'Accredited Investor'

A term used by the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) under Regulation D to refer to investors who are financially sophisticated and have a reduced need for the protection provided by certain government filings. Accredited investors include individuals, banks, insurance companies, employee benefit plans, and trusts.

Investopedia explains 'Accredited Investor'

In order for an individual to qualify as an accredited investorimage, he or she must accomplish at least one of the following:
1) earn an individual income of more than $200,000 per year, or a joint income of $300,000, in each of the last two years and expect to reasonably maintain the same level of incomeimage.
2) have a net worth exceeding $1 million, either individually or jointly with his or her spouse.
3) be a general partner, executive officer, director or a related combination thereof for the issuer of a securityimage being offered.
These investors are considered to be fully functional without all the restrictions of the SEC.
An employee benefit plan or a trust can be qualified as accredit investorsimage is total assets are in excess of $5 million.

Sophisticated Investor

A type of investor who is deemed to have sufficient investing experience and knowledge to weigh the risks and merits of an investment opportunity.

For certain purposes, net worth and income restrictions must be met before a person can be classified a sophisticated investor. The distinction makes an investor eligible to buy into certain investment opportunities, such as pre-IPO securities, that are considered "non-disclosure" or "non-prospectus" issues. Typically, a sophisticated investor must have either a net worth of $2.5 million or have earned more than $250,000 in the past two years to qualify.

Investopedia Says:

Sophisticated investors may have to prove their net worth prior to being eligible to purchase certain security types. Investors will often have their personal accountants send this proof to the brokerage firm. Sophisticated investors are the dream clients of most financial services firms, as they generate much higher fees than retail investors.

Certain assumptions are made about sophisticated investors: that they can hold their investments indefinitely (the funds do not need to be liquidated for cash needs), and they can assume a total loss of investment principal without causing severe damage to their overall net worth.

Read more: http://www.answers.com/topic/sophisticated-investor#ixzz2U38dlcJL